Synthetic cannabinoid toxicity

Adverse Effects of Synthetic Cannabinoids: Management of

Although several chemical structural classes of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) were recently classified as Schedule I substances, rates of use and cases of serious toxic effects remain high Synthetic cannabinoids are sometimes misleadingly called synthetic marijuana (or fake weed) because they act on the same brain cell receptors as THC, the mind-altering ingredient in marijuana. The effects of synthetic cannabinoids can be unpredictable and severe or even life-threatening

Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) DrugFacts National

Cannabinoid Toxicity - PubMe

Distinct pharmacology and metabolism of K2 synthetic cannabinoids compared to Δ(9)-THC: mechanism underlying greater toxicity? Life Sci 2014; 97:45. Rajasekaran M, Brents LK, Franks LN, et al. Human metabolites of synthetic cannabinoids JWH-018 and JWH-073 bind with high affinity and act as potent agonists at cannabinoid type-2 receptors Manage a patient acutely intoxicated with synthetic cannabinoids after investigating for life-threatening complications. Consider and evaluate for myocardial infarction, a known complication of synthetic cannabinoid toxicity. Manage acute synthetic cannabinoid toxicity. Consult a cardiologist, a toxicologist, or a Poison Control Center Toxicity of Synthetic Cannabinoids There is no consistent synthetic cannabinoid toxidrome and every single case has the potential to be completely different from prior reported exposures Cannabinoids can have adverse effects particularly in children if high doses are consumed which result in CNS depression and a coma lasting up to 36 hours Synthetic cannabinoid toxicity accounted for about 4,500 calls to the American Association of Poison Control Centers in 2010. It is clearly much more common now. The initial identified ingredient was termed JWH-018, a synthetic cannabis-like chemical sprayed on a variety of botanicals

The authors note that symptoms of synthetic cannabinoid toxicity are similar to the euphoric and psychoactive effects of regular old-fashioned marijuana, including some sympathomimetic symptoms such as tachycardia, restlessness, diaphoresis, and agitation. Actually, these reported patients, all relatively young, exhibited rather mild toxicity KEY WORDS: Designer drugs, drug toxicity, synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic drug scheduling. INTRODUCTION After alcohol, marijuana ranks as the most pervasive recreational drug in the United States [49], although its legal status and patterns of use are rapidly changing. Currently 18 states and the District of Columbia hav Synthetic cannabinoid toxicity is associated with similar symptoms. However, sympathomimetic toxicity, acute psychosis, and agitation, as well as seizures and sedation can occur. In severe cases, hyperthermia, rhabdomyolysis, and renal failure have occurred. Synthetic cannabinoids are commonly adulterated, leading to these worsened effects Synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs), also known under the brand names of Spice, K2, herbal incense, Cloud 9, Mojo and many others, are becoming a large public health concern due not only to.

Acute Poisonings from Synthetic Cannabinoids — 50 U

Signs and symptoms associated with synthetic cannabinoid

Voodoo is one of these synthetic Cannabinoids that newly emerged in Egypt targeting the youth causing many reported cases of toxicity. This made the Egyptian Ministry of Health in 2014 to list it in drug schedule 1 and warned traffickers and users that they are now under criminal penalties In addition to their euphoric effects, however, synthetic cannabinoids are known to cause psychosis, agitation, elevated vital signs, myocardial ischemia, and seizures. Unfortunately, there is no specific toxidrome associated with this type of toxicity

Use of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) was first reported in Europe in the early 2000s and in the USA in 2008. The emerging popularity of SCs in the USA and severe risks associated with use became apparent when the number of SC intoxication calls to poison control centers increased by 240 % between 2010 and 2011 [ 1 ] Severe toxicity following synthetic cannabinoid ingestion. Clinical Toxicology 2011;49:760-764. Law R, Schier J, Martin C, Chang A, Wolkin A. Notes from the field: increase in reported adverse health effects related to synthetic cannabinoid Use. The CDC described synthetic cannabinoid overdoses between 2010 and 2015 and of 277 drug overdose patients who reported synthetic cannabinoid as the sole agent, 66.1% reported problems in the central nervous system (e.g., agitation, coma, toxic psychosis), 17% reported cardiovascular problems (e.g., tachycardia, bradycardia), 7.6% reported. Toxicity as a consequence of synthetic cannabinoid use (i.e., Spice, K2) has also become an apparent clinical issue with sometimes severe adverse consequences 'Spice' or synthetic cannabinoid-induced toxicity is an emerging etiology of new-onset seizure and does not appear on conventional drug screens. We feel it is important for critical care providers to be aware of this product in order to recognize and appropriately treat this toxicity with supportive management until symptoms resolve

While synthetic cannabinoids are illegal in the U.S., the product may still be found sold illegally on the streets. Popular belief is that Spice or K2 is safe, non-toxic, and results in a psychoactive (mind-altering) effect similar to regular marijuana Synthetic THC acts like natural THC on the cannabinoid receptor site. Synthetic marijuana emerged most likely because one or more people with a background in chemistry got ahold of the synthetic THC recipe and started making it, with a profit intention. John Huffman, a Harvard University educated chemist, is the father of the chemical formula. Reported symptoms of toxicity include anxiety, agitation, paranoia, hallucinations, tachycardia, hypertension, excessive sweating, nausea, and vomiting. Overdoses of synthetic cannabinoids can cause panic attacks and psychosis and lead to tragic results Research chemicals with cannabinoid receptor activation properties are now known as synthetic marijuana or synthetic cannabinoids, despite the often dramatic differences in molecular structure and/or cannabinoid receptor activity 3; Mechanism of toxicity

Toxicological Findings of Synthetic Cannabinoids in

The most common reported toxicities with SCB use based on studies using Texas Poison Control records are tachycardia, agitation and irritability, drowsiness, hallucinations, delusions, hypertension, nausea, confusion, dizziness, vertigo and chest pain. Acute kidney injury has also been strongly associated with SCB use The Wide and Unpredictable Scope of Synthetic Cannabinoids Toxicity Jose Orsini,1 Christa Blaak,1 Eric Tam,1 Salil Rajayer,1 Joaquin Morante,1 Angela Yeh,1 and Ashvin Butala1 1Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Woodhull Medical and Mental Health Center, 760 Broadway, Brooklyn, NY 11206, US a mix of fentanyl and a toxic synthetic cannabinoid, 5-fluor-ADB. Source: Philly.com July 26, 2018 • Drugged driving has become increasingly deadly in New Jersey. The use of opioids and marijuana are the top drugs linked to this impaired driving issue. The Center for Disease Control says more than 64,000 people died from overdose Synthetic Cannabinoids and Synthetic Stimulants Wednesday, July 15, 2020. Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) are a diverse group of synthetic substances created to mimic the effects of scheduled or illicit drugs; however, they vary in both toxicity and potency. An important point of reference is that a substance only needs to be newly observed.

Since 2008 dozens of new synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist compounds have emerged as additives in so-called 'Spice' or 'K2' products. These synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists have become a significant challenge for clinicians, forensic scientists, analytical toxicologists and legislative authorities Symptoms of synthetic cannabinoid toxicity are variable and cover a number of physical and psychological domains. Symptom reporting varies by study population size. Due to the variable presenting symptoms of synthetic cannabinoid toxicity, clinicians in emergency services should consider synthetic cannabinoid toxicity when evaluating young.

Synthetic cannabinoids - Wikipedi

Neuropsychiatric Sequelae in Adolescents With Acute

Know the time course of acute synthetic cannabinoid intoxication. Identify mechanisms for potential drug interactions associated with synthetic cannabinoids. Recognize potential treatment strategies to for managing adverse effects of acute synthetic cannabinoid toxicity. UAN: 0134-0000-20-173-L01- Nonetheless, the six cases of multiple organ failure we report here were all assessed based on clinical judgment to be primarily related to SC toxicity. Mechanism of Toxicity. Synthetic cannabinoids are potent agonists at the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, which are G protein-coupled receptors of the endocannabinoid system Synthetic Marijuana. Synthetic Cannabinoids such as K2 or Spice are manmade chemicals that coat plant material to imitate the effects of the THC high from a Marijuana plant. Synthetic Marijuana is much more dangerous due to the unknown chemicals made up within the drug and the critical side effects it brings

Synthetic cannabinoid formulations range from powders and liquids to smoking mixtures. Synthetic Cannabinoids are often smoked in hookah pipes. Spice drugs are typically a blend of plant and herbal ingredients sprayed with an active chemical agent, such as JHW-18, which is responsible for the toxicity of the synthetic Cannabinoids Synthetic cannabinoids are much more powerful and toxic than users often realize, and their rising prevalence has led to serious health issues among young people and adults, Janda says. We found a way to negate the dangerous effects of these drugs, even when they're consumed in impure forms, as is often the case including synthetic cannabinoids aka spice or K2 and synthetic cathinones aka bath salts add a layer of complexity with regards to correctly identifying and managing acute substance ingestion and toxicity in the emergency department (ED). Identification of synthetic cannabinoids in biological specimen Neuropsychiatric Sequelae in Adolescents With Acute Synthetic Cannabinoid Toxicity Sarah Ann R. Anderson, MD, PhD,a Anna M. Oprescu, MPH,b Diane P. Calello, MD,c Andrew Monte, MD,d Peter S. Dayan, MD, MSC,a,e Yasmin L. Hurd, PhD,b Alex F. Manini, MD,f on behalf of the ToxIC Investigators BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adolescents represent the largest age group that presents to abstrac

Simon L Hill, Michael Dunn, Céline Cano, Suzannah J Harnor, Ian R Hardcastle, Johann Grundlingh, Paul I Dargan, David M Wood, Simon Tucker, Thomas Bartram, Simon H L Thomas, Human Toxicity Caused by Indole and Indazole Carboxylate Synthetic Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists: From Horizon Scanning to Notification, Clinical Chemistry, Volume 64. Among adolescents examined in the emergency department, exposure to synthetic cannabinoids is strongly associated with neuropsychiatric morbidity, according to data published online July 8 ahead of print in Pediatrics. The results support a distinct neuropsychiatric profile of acute synthetic cannabinoid toxicity in adolescents, wrote the investigators In the 1980s, the chemistry professor John Huffman developed a synthetic cannabinoid, known as JWH-018.3 The original intent was to enhance understanding of the cannabinoid system. In what experts now call a classic case of research hijacking, synthetic cannabinoids have been developed by unscrupulous manufacturers into a potent and potentially lethal drug of abuse sold under many names. While cannabis use is not new, its use for recreational purposes is more recent. As with any other medication, the increased accessibility to the drug has led to an increase in accidental exposure in pets. A small amount of cannabis is all it takes to cause toxicity in pets. Many of the clinical effects of intoxication are neurological. Pets become wobbly and uncoordinated Jeff: Synthetic cannabinoids have gained popularity as manufacturers are able to produce newer compounds and circumvent DEA designations as well as routine urine drug screening tests. Nachi: Manufacturers of synthetic cannabinoids sometimes use solvents and other contaminants, which have caused clusters of toxic ingestions and death

Background: Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) have become the largest group of new psychoactive substances monitored by the European Union Early Warning System. Despite the wide diffusion on the market, data regarding effects, toxicities, and mechanisms as well as toxic/lethal doses are still scarce Synthetic cannabinoids stimulate the same brain receptors as THC, the active ingredient in cannabis, but are much more potent. Adolescents make up the majority of people who visit emergency departments for acute synthetic cannabinoid toxicity, but the drugs' effects on the teenage brain are not fully known

The timeline of Cannabinoid detox varies depending on the length and severity of the addiction. Additionally, synthetic Marijuana (with the assortment of chemicals it may contain) can have a rapid and intense onset of symptoms. Days 1 - 3. Onset of symptoms within 72 hours; Daily synthetic smokers report withdrawal after as little as 15 minute The same symptoms that can indicate synthetic cannabinoid toxicity surfaced repeatedly in a recent outbreak of lung injury associated with vaping. The CDC has yet to identify a single common factor in all cases beyond the use of vaporizers or electronic cigarettes Examining the Toxicity of Synthetic Cannabinoids. Vaping-related lung conditions have been catching the attention of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for quite some time now. So far, a total of 39 deaths and 2,051 confirmed cases have been recorded, as the CDC connects the lung injuries with the use of vaping devices

Adolescents represent the largest age group that presents to emergency departments (ED) for synthetic cannabinoid (SC) toxicity; however, the neurotoxic effects of acute SC exposures in this group are understudied. Our aim was to characterize the neuropsychiatric presentation of adolescents with SC-related exposure in the ED compared with those. APICA (also known as SDB-001, and 2NE1) is a novel synthetic cannabinoid that produces modified cannabis-like effects when administered.It has been shown to act as a potent agonist for the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors.. The name 2NE1 appears to be a reference to the South Korean all-girl K-Pop group, a naming convention shared by the closely related chemical AKB48 New reports confirm that using synthetic cannabinoids known as K2/spice can cause life-threatening side effects. It's important for providers to be aware that these products are growing in popularity, and to recognize signs of toxicity. K2/Spice is the general name given to a class of over 100 different types of synthetic cannabinoids

Cannabis Toxicity - rx

synthetic cannabinoids With names like Spice, K2, No More Mr. Nice Guy, and hundreds of others, the drugs often called synthetic marijuana are - in reality - very different from marijuana. They contain powerful chemicals called cannabimimetics and can cause severe, life-threatening health effects: severe agitation and anxiety, nausea. Table. Percentage of patients (n = 277) reporting synthetic cannabinoids as the sole toxicologic agent* among 42,138 cases of toxic exposure reported at 101 participating hospitals and clinics, by. Synthetic Cannabinoids are often laced onto herbal products. Reported adverse effects . While side effects of cannabis are well documented [4], data on human toxicity related to the use of synthetic cannabinoids remains limited


  1. We identified all prospectively collected reports of synthetic cannabinoid exposures in the ToxIC database between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2016. The following inclusion criteria were used to identify synthetic cannabinoid exposure cases: (1) 12 to 19 years of age and (2) presented to a participating center with
  2. Unlike natural cannabis, where there has never been a case of toxic overdose, synthetic cannabinoids can definitely lead to overdose and possibly even death. Using these dangerous drugs is like playing a game of Russian roulette. Some might produce negative side effects like nausea and vomiting,.
  3. Synthetic Cannabinoid HPLC Mixture I MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET Supercedes Revision: 08/16/2010 IATA Classification: 3,6.1 Additional Transport Information: Transport in accordance with local, state, and federal regulations. 15. Regulatory Information European Community Hazard Symbol codes F: Highly Flammable; T: Toxi
  4. Stay away from synthetic cannabinoid blends. Do not use them. If more information is released about this, I'll update. Stay safe. References Baselt, R.C. (2008) Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man, 8th Edition. Biomedical Publications. Foster City, CA. Baselt, R.C. (2011) Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man, 9th Edition

Acute Synthetic Cannabinoid Toxicity Simulation MedEdPORTA

There has been a dramatic increase in medical complications related to synthetic cannabinoid (SC) use either by water pipe or vaping. The legalization of marijuana in an increasing number of states has also resulted in an increase in a number of complications related not just to marijuana, but in particular, to SC. As a result, there have been recent increased reports of acute pulmonary injury. Recreational consumption of synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) is a growing crisis in public health in many parts of the world. AMB-FUBINACA is a member of this class of drugs and is responsible for a large proportion of SCRA-related toxicity both in New Zealand and internationally. Strikingly, little is currently known about the mechanisms by which SCRAs exert toxic effects or.

Synthetic cannabinoids are much more powerful and toxic than users often realize, and their rising prevalence has led to serious health issues among young people and adults, Janda says Synthetic cannabinoids were developed in research in the 1970s to study the cannabinoid system. 6,18 It was not until 2008 that SCs reemerged in the US as a cheap recreational drug. 1,19 The harmful effects of exposure to SC were first reported in the US in 2009. 3 Cannabinoid CB1 receptors are among the most abundant receptors expressed in the.

Adding significant danger, some synthetic cannabinoids are contaminated with toxic chemicals—including rat poison. Or, they can be laced other drugs, including synthetic opioids such as fentanyl or synthetic cathinone drugs like bath salts and flakka Sept. 10, 2018 -- A surge in dangerous side effects and overdoses has put the spotlight on cannabinoid drugs that go by names like K2, Spice, Mr. Happy, Scooby Snax, and Kronic. Between March and. Synthetic cannabinoids are much more powerful and toxic than users often realize, and their rising prevalence has led to serious health issues among young people and adults

Man-made cannabinoids - synthetic toxicity. Cannabinoids produced by nature, in the plant or naturally in our brains are limited to a certain potency, even with the discovery of the new highly potent tetrahydrocannabiphorol (THCP.) Artificial cannabinoids, on the other hand, can be engineered into incredibly strong 'super agonists. Synthetic cannabinoids exhibit increased cannabinoid effects compared with THC due to increased binding affinity, full receptor agonism, and active metabolites. 1 Cannabinoid‐1 (CB 1) receptors are located in the peripheral and central nervous systems, specifically in the dorsal root ganglion of the spine and cortical and subcortical regions.

Case Series of Synthetic Cannabinoid Intoxication from OneFrontiers | Beyond THC: The New Generation of Cannabinoid

Tox and Hound - Toxicology's Shapeshifter: Synthetic

  1. Synthetic cannabis is extremely dangerous to the human body, and has claimed as many 10 lives for the month of July in Auckland alone
  2. The biological activity, potency, and toxicity are largely unknown for the synthetic cannabinoids. Generation 1 compounds were relatively benign with similar activity and potency to THC. However, it's important to remember that much of the research is limited to in vitro receptor binding studies and animal models
  3. Synthetic Marijuana. Synthetic Cannabinoids such as K2 or Spice are manmade chemicals that coat plant material to imitate the effects of the THC high from a Marijuana plant. Synthetic Marijuana is much more dangerous due to the unknown chemicals made up within the drug and the critical side effects it brings
  4. Background and purpose: Consumption of Synthetic Cannabinoid Receptor agonists (SCRAs) is associated with severe adverse reactions including seizures, arrhythmias and death, but the molecular mechanisms surrounding SCRA toxicity are not yet established. These disease-like symptoms are also synonymous with altered T-type calcium channel activity.
  5. Synthetic cannabinoids have a higher potential to cause serious neuropsychiatric toxicity than marijuana. They are analogs of cannabis that are added to other herbals or hallucinogenic plants and act as full or partial agonists of the cannabinoid receptor CB1. Their drug effects are directly proportional to the amount being used
  6. A new class of synthetic cannabinoids has emerged as new psychoactive substances (NPS). Similar in structure to JWH-022, these substances contain alkene modifications to the tail region of the synthetic cannabinoid core structure, and nomenclature denotes these new analogues as pent-4en or but-3en species. Internationally, two analogues from this new series recently emerged: MDMB-4en-PINACA.
  7. Synthetic Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists 6 NEPTUNE The symptoms of acute toxicity are listed in Box 1. Acute SCRA toxicity appears to have a similar clinical presentation to the toxicity of natural cannabis and THC, although differences have been reported, with convulsions and hypokalaemia particularly noted

Many of the new substances reaching the market recently are in the form of synthetic cannabinoids. 1 These designer drugs are produced from man-made chemicals designed to create comparable effects. Nehtaji Gallage was first acquainted with cannabinoids when she was a researcher at the University of Copenhagen. She was hunting for the genes that help cannabis plants produce their unique compounds, and synthetic biology could play a key role in producing cannabinoids. This led her to create the Danish startup Octarine Bio in 2018 There are many chemical families of synthetic cannabinoids, including HU-210, JWH-073, JWH-018, JWH-200, AM-2201, UR-144, and XLR-11; new compounds are being reported regularly. Effects vary greatly depending on the specific cannabinoid, and many of the acute and chronic effects remain unknown

Cannabinoid toxicity • LITFL • Toxicology Library Toxican

  1. 2 ABSTRACT Context: Recreational use of Synthetic Cannabinoid Receptors Agonists (SCRAs) has become increasingly common in many countries and may cause severe toxic effects. Objective: To describe the clinical features of toxicity in 7 men after analytically confirmed exposure to use of MDMB-CHMICA, a recently described indole-based SCRA
  2. We found that synthetic cannabinoid-receptor agonists (SCRA), cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS), pediatric cases, acute toxicity and overdose, cannabis withdrawal/cannabis use disorder (CUD), and e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) were the most commonly reported topic areas related to ED cannabis care in our initial search strategy
  3. Synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs), designer drugs marketed as legal alternatives to marijuana, act as ligands to cannabinoid receptors; however, they have increased binding affinity and potency, resulting in toxicity symptoms such as cardiovascular incidents, seizures, and potentially death
  4. A 'particularly dangerous or toxic' batch is currently in circulation. Newcastle City Council believes there is a 'particularly dangerous or toxic' batch of the synthetic cannabinoid currently in circulatio
  5. CONTEXT: Recreational use of Synthetic Cannabinoid Receptors Agonists (SCRAs) has become increasingly common in many countries and may cause severe toxic effects. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical features of toxicity in seven men after analytically confirmed exposure to MDMB-CHMICA, a recently described indole-based SCRA
  6. Although synthetic cannabinoids' mechanisms of toxicity are poorly understood, it is well established that cannabis - even a high potency THC extract - bears no lethal toxicity. The physical and psychic effects of drugs are complex, so it helps to borrow from the language of pharmacology, a field dedicated to understanding the human.

Synthetic cannabinoids (synthetic marijuana, Spice, K2) are various man made chemicals that some people may use as an alternative to marijuana. These seemingly innocent little packages of fake weed can cause serious side effects that are very different from those of marijuana. Synthetic cannabinoid products can be toxic Synthetic cannabinoid abuse is a growing problem in the US. New discoveries tied to genetic factors that increase a person's risk for experiencing the most dangerous effects of these drugs could. Studies of synthetic cannabinoids indicate higher cannabinoid receptor binding affinities, effects two to 100 times more potent than Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (the principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis), noncannabinoid receptor binding, and genotoxicity (4,5) Three people have died after taking a 'particularly toxic' batch of Spice, authorities believe. Newcastle City Council said three people who died in the past 24 hours are thought to have taken the hallucinogenic and highly addictive drug that is usually made with cannabis and dangerous chemicals About 19% of SC-only patients experienced seizures compared to 6% of those using only cannabis, confirming previous research, according to Neuropsychiatric Sequelae in Adolescents with Acute Synthetic Cannabinoid Toxicity, (Anderson SAR, et al. Pediatrics

(PDF) Utilization of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

InFocus: Synthetic Cannabinoids Treating Toxicity

Toxic synthetic cannabinoid 4F-ADB - Where is it used? April 22, 2018 0 4F-ADB is a synthetic cannabinoid, one of the research chemicals, which is based on indazole. It belongs to the indazole-3-carboxamide family. It is widely used as one of the main ingredients in the production of synthetic cannabis They target the cannabinoid receptors in the brain like cannabis, but can be more toxic. More than fifty New Zealanders are suspected of having died after using synthetic cannabinoids since mid-2017. Community Responses Did You Know - Synthetics Overdose Emergenc

A 'spicy' encephalopathy: synthetic cannabinoids as cause

Samra K, Boon IS, Packer G, et al. Lethal high: acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) triggered by toxic effect of synthetic cannabinoid black mamba. BMJ Case Rep. 2017;2017. (Case report; 1 patient) Bush DM, Woodwell DA. Update: Drug-related emergency department visits involving synthetic cannabinoids. The CBHSQ Report. Rockville (MD. Cannabinoids and Legal Highs: Recognition and Management in the Emergency Department (Pharmacology CME) This resource, delivered fully online, includes two courses and two audio presentations reviewing the recognition and management of intoxication emergencies in adults, adolescents, and children associated with cannabinoids, synthetic cannabinoids, and other synthetic designer drugs. An outbreak of synthetic cannabinoid-associated coagulopathy in Illinois. N Engl J Med, 2018; 379(13): 1,216-23. Daniel Hu, PharmD, BCCCP, has Doctor of Pharmacy degree and is a critical care. The repeated recommendations come from an inquiry into the death of Oliver Dwayne Johnathon Manukau, who died from AMB-FUBINACA - or synthetic cannabis - toxicity in 2018

InFocus: Synthetic Cannabinoids: Treating Toxicity

  1. Cannabinoid Toxicity Article - StatPearl
  2. (PDF) Synthetic Cannabinoids - ResearchGat
  3. Synthetic Cannabinoids Office of Addiction Services and
Tox and Hound - Toxicology’s Shapeshifter: SyntheticPrevalence of Synthetic Cannabinoid MDMB-4en-PINACAFrontiers | Synthetic Cathinone and Cannabinoid Designer
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